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HISTORY OF BANDON
[Pages 259-282] THE MILITIA DISARMED - THE PROTESTANT INHABITANTS TERRIFIED - THE OLD BANDON CHARTER SET ASIDE - THE NEW CORPORATION - KING JAMES'S IRISH MILITIA - THE BLACK MONDAY INSURRECTION.
1685- We have now come to another great epoch in our history. When England rebelled against the Stuarts in the reign of Charles the First, the Irish took advantage of that event, and rebelled against England. Now that England rebelled against the Stuarts in the reign of James the Second. the Irish readily took advantage of similar opportunity, and rebelled again. But the great mistake made by them in the former struggle was not repeated by them in this. In the previous one they did not warmly espouse the royal cause, but in this one they did.
In the vast uprising in 1641, they first fought against the Royalists; then they joined them; then they broke faith with them; and then they betrayed them.* In this one, however, they were united with them before James set his foot on Irish soil, and after he left it.
They now enrolled themselves under the royal banner; and it was but what one would expect. James had become a Roman Catholic, and had taken to his new profession with the zeal of one who was stimulated by prejudices which he had long laboured to conceal, and now, having thrown the reins on their neck, he let them run riot.
* Owen Roe, the generalissimo-in-chief of the Irish, left the Royalists, and entered into a treaty with their powerful opponents (the Parliament) for mutual assistance; and by virtue of this league with them, General Farrell (the Parliamentary general) had the arms and ammunition restored to him which Inchiquin (the Royalists general) captured from him. -(See Cox.) Again:- The army of the Supreme Council deserted the King's service-most of the Irish being seduced by their clergy-so that at length their pretended loyalty became the scorn of their enemies.
If they could not obtain a favour from a sheep of their own flock-from one who humbled himself at the same shrine with themselves-how could they obtain a favour form one who believed that faith avowed by the members of their church to be an idolatrous and damnable superstition.
If James reverenced his religion, he would, at least, respect his co-religionists; and would, of course, restore them to those estates from which they had been ejected by their heretical oppressors. Scarcely had he mounted the throne when the Irish began. Reports from various quarters poured into the authorities that private meetings were held, where violent language and fierce threats were uttered against the Protestant inhabitants. Indeed, so thoroughly convinced were the government of the great movement in progress, that Lord Granard (one of the two lord justices) became so alarmed, that he desired to be deprived of this post; and he was not content to retain it, until James wrote with his own hand, assuring him that nothing should be done in Ireland prejudicial to the Protestant interest.
The great obstacle to the successful over-running of the country was the militia. Talbot, who had been appointed lieutenant-general of the army towards the close of the last reign, had been successful in deprotestantizing it, and now he turned his attention to the militia-a force which was more powerful that the regular army; whose ranks were filled with the sons and grandsons of Cromwell's old Ironsides; a body of men whom nothing could induce to change their religion or countenance the policy of the new regime. Therefore, they must be got rid of.
Accordingly, under the pretence that many of the Irish Protestants were privy to the Duke of Monmouth's designs; instructions were forwarded to Ireland to disarm the militia; and they were ordered to deposit their arms in his Majesty's stores. This being accomplished, the rest was easy.
A petition was presented to Lord Clarendon (the new lord-lieutenant) demanding that all the outlawries occasioned by the great rebellion should be reversed. Archbishop Boyle (the lord chancellor) had the seals of office almost snatched out of his hand. Three Protestant judges were removed without a reason being assigned for their removal, and three Roman Catholics-Nugent, Daly, and Rice-put in their places, without even being asked to take the oath of supremacy.
A cloud of informers arose everywhere. One Major Lawless caused Sir Edward Moore, Edward Riggs (subsequently one of our Parliamentary representatives), and thirty-three others* to be indicted for high-treason. Moore's treason consisted in his being a good Protestant; whilst Riggs, who was also a Protestant, was accused of saying that if he could not live quietly in Ireland, he would go to England.
The Protestant population were terrified. Numbers of the northern Presbyterians disposed of their effects, and fled to New England. A great many of the southern gentry-in fact all those from every quarter who could fly-escaped out of the country as fast as they could. Those that remained behind were insulted and robbed.
''We'll make you as poor devils as when you first came to Ireland!'' was in the mouth of every fellow who, from laziness or extravagance, was in the very condition to which he was anxious to reduce his Protestant neighbours. When rents were demanded, the tenants coolly tell their landlords they had nothing to give them, as they had spent their lat farthing in arming themselves and their sons for the service of King James. At other times they would invite them to drink damnation and confusion to all heretics, especially the Prince and Princess of Orange. But they did not even confine themselves to these civilities. They indulged in unmeasured abuse. Their favourite appellation for a Protestant was-''You dog!'' but if they wished to concentrate every vengeful feeling they possessed into one phrase, they would hiss from between their teeth-''You Whig!'' It is no wonder then, that those who could contrive to leave Ireland should do so.
* They were all tried and acquitted, and the verdict of Not Guilty had such an effect upon poor Lawless that it broke his heart.
Ever since Talbot was sent over here as lieutenant-general, the peaceably-disposed inhabitants were becoming uneasy; but now that he had been appointed lord-deputy of Ireland, they would stay no longer.
Amongst those who managed to escape from this locality were:-
|Bernard, Francis, sen., .....................................................................|
|Bernard, Francis, jr.,.........................................................................|
|Beecher, Thomas,. ..............wife and seven children .......................||£897|
|Cox, Richard,......................wife . six children,........................||160|
|Crofts, George,....................wife . children ten,.......................||260|
|Freke, Percy,.......................wife . one child,..........................||520|
|Gilman, Robert,....................wife . Children six, .....................||120|
|Gookin, Robert....................wife . One child.................................||300|
|Moore, Sir Emanuel..............wife . two children............................||650|
|Riggs, Edward,.....................wife . children five.............................||800|
|Synge, Rev. George,.............wife . two children,...........................||100|
|Staywell, Jonas,....................wife . two children,...........................||600|
Not only those who left the country, but those who came into it, were looked upon with no friendly eye years before Tyrconnell's arrival.
A lady,* who lived in this neighbourhood, tells us in her journal, that in the July of 1681, her husband and herself, on their landing from Bristol, were brought before the mayor of Cork, and accused of being ''plotters in England, stole over.''
As soon as Clarendon resigned the sword of state, Tyrconnell went actively to work. Sir Charles Porter was dismissed for saying he would not allow himself to be made a tool of for uprooting the Protestant interest in Ireland; and Sir Alexander Fitton -a man who had been convicted of forgery, but had atoned for all his misdeeds by becoming a Roman Catholic-was appointed in his place.
Soon after-desirous of filling all the corporations with his co-religionists-he had a quo warranto issued against every corporate town in Ireland; and he employed Rice, the town chief baron, and Nagel, the attorney-general,§ to carry out his designs. Those worthiness set to work with a zeal equal to his own, and after two successive terms, there was scarcely an old charter remaining.
* Under date of July 26th, 1681, Mrs. Freke writes:-''I came to Bristol and took shipping at Pill, incognito; and by God's great goodness and mercy to me through such turbulent times, we [Mr. Freke and herself] both came safe to Cork the Saturday following. Being both of us guarded before the mayor there-for plotters in England, stole over-to be searched by the present mayor; who being one Mr. Covett [Richard Covett], well known to my family, was over and above civil to us, and treated us like a gentleman, and bound himself for our loyalty; and commanded all our things on ship-board to be presently delivered to us, and the city of Cork to give us the respect due to our quality, to the amazement of all beholders.''
This worthy stated in open court that he believed there was not one heretic in forty thousand who was not a villian.
Sir Stephen Rice, before his elevation to the bench, was in good repute as a lawyer; but it was for his inveterate hostility to the Protestant interest and the Act of Settlement that he was principally known. Concerning the latter, a favourite expression of his was that he would drive a coach and six horses through it.
§ Richard Nagel (subsequently knighted and made secretary of state by James was originally designed for the priesthood, and spent some years among the Jesuits, with the intention of becoming one of their Order.
New ones were immediately issued to replace those which had been condemned and new officers were elected, but these are said to have been for the most part, such inconsiderable and beggarly fellows, that they were unable to pay the fees demanded of them.
The sheriffs were as bad. Some of these are described as being men ''without freeholds, and without sense.'' And one of them-Turlogh O'Donnelly, who served two years as high-sheriff of Tyrone-is stated to have been so deficient in common honesty, that when his son stole some bullocks from his neighbour, Mr. Hamilton, he brought them to his father's (the sheriff's) house; but that high functionary, instead of instantly restoring them to the owner, had some of them killed for his own use; and the rest, in due course, would have shared the same fate, had not Hamilton discovered who the thief was, and a bond was passed for sixteen pounds for those which the sheriff eat; but when Mr. Hamilton sued that worthy for the amount, he-in order to avoid being arrested-enlisted as a private soldier.
By the charter conferred upon Bandon, one Teige McCarthy was appointed provost; and twenty-four burgesses were, at the same time, elected to sit with him.
When news was brought that Daniel McCarthy-Reagh would arrive in Bandon from Cork on a certain day with the new charter, also that he intended raising money off the town, and, if possible, enlisting soldiers there for James, several adventurous spirits from the town, accompanied by some people from Kilpatrick, resolved on awaiting his approach on the banks of the Brinny river, near the bridge-where they pretended to be fishing-having previously determined on making him a prisoner, and burning the new charter with all becoming honours. By some mischance McCarthy heard of their designs, and contrived to get safely within the walls with his precious charge.
Good news travels fast enough, but bad news generally out-runs it. Not only did the rumour of McCarthy's arrival speedily reach them, but in additional piece of most unwelcome intelligence also. They were told that not only had the charter come, but that the bearer of it was accompanied by an idolatrous priest, who had with him a veritable link from the chairs of St. Peter.
The charter they thought was, in all conscience, bad enough, the presence of a Popish clergyman was still worse, but that Bandon should afford a sanctuary to an infamous Romish imposture was unbearable.
After making use of language which revealed the intensity of their bitterness, many of them calmed down, and looking at their critical position, they listened to reason; but a blue-black Presbyterians among them would not listen to anything. ''That charter-that priest-oh! if he had his will, he'd-! but that link from the iron chain-that symbol of unfettered thought.'' After wearing himself by the vehemence of his denunciations against relics, and against all those who dared to bring them within the immaculate walls of Bandon, ''By the solemn League and Covenant.'' said he, .''if I can lay my hands on it, I will make a bob of it to catch eels with!''
Although the individuals selected by Tyrconnell to fill the corporate and civil offices were in general chosen form a class who had little means, and less reputation, yet so far as Bandon was concerned, those appointed under James's charter were not inferior in social position or substantial wealth to nay corporate body that preceded them. The provost, Mr. Teige McCarthy,* was a member of one of the oldest and most respectable houses in the kingdom. Of the burgesses, one was a colonel of a regiment of militia, which he had himself raised for the service of King James, and, subsequently, sat in that turbulent Parliament called into being by that monarch on the 7th of May, 1689. Another commanded his company of foot in the same cause; and nearly all the rest were taken from precisely the same rank in life as those whose duties they were now called upon to perform.
McCarthy having arrived at the scene of his future labours, immediately proceeded to business; and having removed Mr. John Nash-the provost of the Protestant party-he, on the 20th of March, was duly sworn into the provostship. The following were nominated same day as free-burgesses:-
|Teige McCarthy, provost.||Joseph Chamberlaine,|
|Colonel Charles McCarrthy,||Ralph Chartres, apothecary|
|Captain Arthur Keefe,||Murtogh Downy,|
|Teige McCarthy, jun.,||Edward Collyer, merchant,|
|Thomas Knight, merchant,||Daniel Conner, jun.|
* Teige McCarthy, of Agliss, was deprived of his estate, valued at three hundred and fifty pounds per annum, for his adherence to King James. It was sold at the great auction of forfeited estates in 1703, and brought by James Hingston, of Cork.
To these on the next day, were added four more-Cornelius Conner, James and Edward Rashleigh, clothiers, and John Goold, merchant.*
Hugh Donovan was sworn sergeant-at-mace. His securities were Richard Edwards, innkeeper, and John Murphy.
Following the example of their predecessors, the new corporation also appointed constables to preserve the peace. On the north-side of the town they had Solomon Pope and Abraham Beere, together with Robert Gyles and Thomas Blewit as assistants; and on the south-side, Jeremy Biggs and Attiwell Woods, with William Walker and John Barther as their assistants.
The new provost, although an ardent admirer of James, yet did not permit the interest he took in that prince's welfare to blind him to his own; for we find that upon the very day after he took the oaths, he demanded and obtained from the corporation treasurer fifty pounds, being, as he said, the amount expended in procuring the new charter, and ten pounds to compensate himself for the interest he took in obtaining that boon for the inhabitants.
In two days after (March 23), the following, having taken the oath of allegiance to James the Second, were admitted to the freedom of the town:-
|Abbott, William,||Edwars, Josias, carpenter,||Mahony, John,|
|Barther, John,||Garret, Robert,||Malone, Hugh,|
|Biss, Thomas,||Galvin, Danl., tailor,||Roe, Robert,|
|Browne, Samuel,||Husband, John,||Reagan, Darby,|
|Barrett, W., shoemkr.,||Humphrues, David,||Richardson, William,|
|Connell, J., carpenter,||Harris, John,||Sullivan, David,|
|Corker, Johm, cooper,||Joyce, Thomas,||Splaine, Robert,|
|Cullinane, J., mason,||Humphries, William, button-maker||Sabery, Thomas,|
|Cooke, Robert,||Langton, Aaron,||Seannel, W., mason,|
|Denison, Thomas,||Litton, William,||Woods, Attiwell,|
|Drapier, I., clothier,||Martin, Walter,||Wright, William,|
|Davis, John, sen.,||Murphy, Denis,||Wholehane, Darby, carpenter.|
|Davis, John, jun.,||Hungerford, J., tier,|
|Edwards, R., innkpr.,|
* Joseph Chamberlaine, Ralph Chartres, and Edward Rashleigh refused to serve, and fled for safety to England. Henry Curtain, William Harding, and Daniel Doolin, were elected in their stead.
From these names, it will be seen that out of the entire population only forty-two could be prevailed upon to recognize James as their king; and even of these some were evidently new arrivals-as Murphy Mahony, Wholehane, &c.
No when we consider that, at the very time we write of, all the civil and military power of the kingdom was in the possession of those from whom the Bandonians could expect no favour, and who could at any moment have seized their goods, and incarcerated themselves, without their motives being challenged or their authority disputed, we are amazed to find how any people, helpless as they were, would have dared to resist the supreme authority of those in whose hands were their very lives. Probably they had convinced themselves that the success of James and his allies was but a temporary one, and that it must fly before the advance of Protestant army and a Protestant king; or, it may be, they despised that prince and the cause he was identified with so utterly, as to prefer the alternative of ruin, beggary, or even a violent death, to any acknowledgement of him-however slender, superficial, or insincere. The authorities were well aware of this feeling, and of its intensity, and on the 1st of June they issued the following proclamation:-
''Whereas, several summonses have of late been given to the inhabitants of this corporation to appear and take the oath accustomed for freemen and forasmuch as they refuse and contemn the said summonses. Now we, the said provost and majority of the burgesses, having taken into consideration the wrong and injury that happen unto the corporation thereby, do, and by our mutual assents and consents have ordered that every person, of what trade soever, shall pay six shillings and eightpence sterling per day for using every such trade or occupation, either private or public, after the fifteenth day of June next the date hereof; and the same to be levied on their goods and chattels, and to be disposed of according to law; or their bodies to be imprisoned, through the choice lying in the provost.''
Another proclamation, more peremptory still, was issued in three weeks afterwards, directed against those ''who do stand out, and refuse to take the oath.'' But this was also unheeded; and all that the summonses and proclamations could wring out of the reluctant townspeople was the addition of six names to those already mentioned, namely:- Robert Langley, Thomas Browne, John Long, Jeremy Biggs, Thomas Williams, and Richard Clarke.
Although the treatment they received at the hands of their fellow-citizens was sufficient to discourage them, nevertheless they persevered, and performed their duties with zeal and ability. They passed a bye-law, by which sixpence was charged one every cow, bull, or ox coming into the town markets; on every sheep, veal, and pig, twopence; and on every lamb, a halfpenny. The tolls of the fairs and markets they let to one Daniel Hurly, for £34 per annum, as appears by the following:-
''Whereas, there was a lease formerly made by the made by the Right Honble. the Earl of Cork to Thomas Polden, provost of Bandon, and to his successors. provost of the said town, of the tolls and customs of the fairs and markets of the said town, for a term of years yet unexpired of the said lease. Now we, Teige McCarthy, provost of the said town, of Bandon, and the burgesses of the same, whose names are hereunto subscribed, do demise and set the said tolls and customs, with the issues, rights, and profits to the same belonging, unto Daniel Hurly, of the said town, for the term and time yet to come and unexpired of the said Earl's lease, at the rent of thirty-four pounds sterling per annum; payable at Michaelmas and Layday, by equal portions, and according to reservations in the Earl's instructions. In witness whereof, we have hereby put our hands and seals this fourteenth day of April, 1688.
Copia vera examinat
|Teige McCarthy, provost,
Dermot McCarthy, free-burgess,
The provost received a letter from the high-sheriff of the county, informing him that he, together with the undermentioned justices of the peace, were appointed by the Grand Jury at the Spring Assizes, 1688, ''to take cognizance of the high-constables, overseers, and undertakers of works in the several baronies, and for which they have not given any account.''
|David Nagel, for ye town and manor of Mayallo.||The Sovereign of Kinsale|
|Martin Supple, Esq., Youghal.||Sir Boyle Maynard, Knt., Kinatalloon|
|Sir Richard Aldworth, Knt., Duhallo||Sir Richard Hull, Knt., Imokilliy.|
|Richard Nagel, Esq., Fermoy||Garrett, Goold, Esq., Barrymore|
|James Mansor, Esq., Candons and Clongibbons||Charles McCarthy, of Cloghroe, Muskerry|
|John Power, Esq., Orrery and Kilmore||John Barrett, Esq., Barrett's|
|John Barry, Esq., Ibane and Barryroe||Nicholas Browne, Esq., Bantry|
|Edward Kenny, Esq., Kinalea||Teige McCarthy, provost, Bandon-Bridge|
|Francis Bernard, Esq., Kinalmeaky||Jonas Stawell, Esq., Courceys|
|Sir Edward Moore, Carberry East||John Ffolliott, Esq., Kerricurrihy|
|Daniel O'Donovan, Carbery West|
1687- When Lord Clarendon left Ireland in February, 1687 he was accompanied-from Dublin alone-by no less than fifteen hundred Protestant families, who preferred leaving home under many disadvantages, rather than face the danger which threatened to engulf them if they remained. Tyrconnell had long been delayed on the English side by contrary winds-believed by many of the Protestant party to be the act of a benign Providence, which, by hindering him coming over, allowed them to profit by the delay, and make their escape. at last he reached this country in safety.
Soon after his landing he visited Cork, where he was sumptuously entertained by Christopher Crofts, the mayor.
A great many complaints were sent over to England against him, insomuch, so, that James thought it right to summon him over to meet him at Chester. His departure revived the drooping spirits of the English; but this gleam of sunshine did not last long, as he soon came back, and took to his old courses without being in the least diverted from his purposes by the visit to England.
The Irish having all the civil as well as military power in their own hands, and having secured Ireland, as they thought, they resolved to send help over to James. Accordingly, three thousand of Tyrconnell's choicest troops went over.
To complete their body, he withdrew the garrison at Londonderry; and neglected to put one in its place, not dreaming that the men of the town would dare refuse admission to any garrison he should at any time choose to send there.
Having recruited, so as to fill up the vacancies caused by the forces sent to England, he ordered the Earl of Antrim, with his newly-raised regiment of twelve hundred men, to take possession of the city.
Whilst this body was on the march, Colonel Phillips sent one James Boyle to Derry, recommending the inhabitants to shut the gates and refuse them admission.
This they had already resolved on, an on the 7th of December the 'prentice-boys tried their 'prentice hands on the drawbridge, and the memorable siege of Derry began. The townspeople were also urged to this dangerous proceeding by a report which was extensively circulated, and believed by every one who heard it, that the Irish intended a general massacre of the inhabitants on the 9th of December; but we suspect that the landing of William at Torquay, on the 5th, did more to influence them than the advice of Phillips, or the fear of any danger to apprehend from the soldiers of Antrim.
The great encouragement given to the disaffected by the new deputy, induced them to start up everywhere. Bands of men-many of whom had long been on the run for robbery or murder-were now formed into corps of militia, and were often commanded by those who, but a short time before, were cow-boys, clowns, or Tories. Fellows who had been accustomed to put straw in their brogues to keep out the cold and the wet, now wore three-cornered cocked hats, and shuffled about oddly in their military jack-boots.
Should any of the class from which these militiamen were drawn exhibit any lack of zeal or sympathy for the cause, they were not overlooked by their clergy.
One who was conversant with the south of Ireland at this time says, that no person, from fourteen years old up to eighty, was allowed to attend mass unless he was furnished with a knife sixteen inches long, and a large half-pike; and should he neglect, or not comply with their injunctions, a terrible punishment was exacted:- he was excommunicated; cast off for ever; flung outside the Pale of Christianity in this world; and damned, without doubt, everlastingly in the next; or else he should pay a fine of seven-and-sixpence.
Influenced by their own passions, as well as by those of others, these lawless militia roamed about the country, devastating and destroying everything. In every direction the smoke from a burning farm-house, or a blazing haggard, told were they had been.* The carcases of sheep and oxen, slaughtered by them in pure wantoness, were left to rot on the highway, and taint the atmosphere for miles around.
If a Protestant was seen to look joyous, or even to smile, he was a Whig, an ought to be piked; and if he was seen going to, or returning from, his place of worship, he was a heretic, and ought to be burned.
Blood was freely shed too. One who lived then might behold one of the dominant party parading on the public road, holding a pike above his head, on which was transfixed a human tongue, and crying out, ''Who'll buy a Protestant tongue?'' These, and such-like proceedings, spoke volumes of what the country and its industrious inhabitants had to expect under the new rulers.
It is no wonder then that the Protestant farmers-many of whom could remember the great rebellion-should fly from their fields and homesteads, and flock to the nearest walled-in town for protection.
* Ireland abounded at this time with large farms, all of which were plentifully stocked with sheep and cattle. Mrs. Freke states that, when she and her husband let Rathbarry (now Castle-Freke) in 1684, the lands maintained two thousand five hundred sheep, seven hundred lambs, an in addition to coach horses and saddle horses, supported thirty working horses, plough oxen, and three hundred beast of the pail (i.e.-milch cows), besides young stock.
1689- Bandon was this time garrisoned by a troop of horse and two companies of foot, all under the command of Captain Daniel O'Neil, who held the town for King James.
On Saturday, the 16th of February, 1689, Captain O'Neil issued a proclamation, which was read at the market-house in the South Main Street, and at the one adjoining North-gate at Kilbrogan, calling on the inhabitants to deliver up all their arms and ammunition within three days.
At the expiration of the allotted time, finding that his orders were but very partially obeyed, he communicated with Lord Clancarthy,* who readily promised to assist him, stating that he would be with him from Cork about noon on the following Monday-February 25th-bring with him six companies of foot.
The Bandon people having timely notice of this, and being, moreover, encouraged by the proclamation announcing that the Prince of Orange had ascended the throne, resolved not only on preventing the entrance of the six companies, but on turning out those they had within. They were also stimulated to this resolve by a report-which had probably more weight than even the disarming itself-that O'Neil had declared that the Sunday after Clancarthy's arrival should witness the celebration of mass in the parish church of Kilbrogan.
* Donogh McCarthy (fourth Earl of Clancarthy) was the only son of Callaghan, by Elizabeth, daughter of the Earl of Kildare, and was grandson of Donogh, Lord Muskerry, the first Earl of Calncarthy (the Lord Muskerry who distinguished himself on the Irish side in the great rebellion). He was married when not quite sixteen, to the lady Elizabeth Spenser-a child of not more than eleven years old-daughter of the Earl of Sunderland, then secretary of state to Charles the Second. Shortly after his marriage he removed to Ireland, and lived principally at Macroom Castle, where he continued to profess the Protestant religion, in the doctrines of which he had been carefully brought up at Oxford under the tutelage of the archbishop of Canterbury, until James the Second landed in Kinsale. When Cork was obliged to submit to the victorious Marlborough, Clancarthy was taken prisoner, and, on being sent to England, was imprisoned in the tower. After being detained there for three years, he escaped to St. Germians, where he was graciously received, and entrusted with the command of a corps of Irish refugees. His estates, which amounted to ten thousand a-year, where forfeited, subject, however, to two annuities-one to his wife, and one to his brothers. Of these, the greater portion were bestowed by William upon the Duke of Portland's eldest son, Lord Woodstock. Great efforts were subsequently made by Lord Sunderland, and other influential people in England, to have this forfeiture reversed, Clancarthy being represented to the King as a faultless person; and they, probably, would have succeeded, had not the Grand Jury of the county of Cork, instigated by Sir Richard Cox (then a Justice of the Common Pleas), forwarded to the court a strong memorial against any clemency being shown to him, on the grounds, amongst other matters, of his practices against the Protestants, his inveterate hatred to the English interest, and the little probability of ever seeing an English plantation in those parts if he was restored. ''If he be restored,'' says Cox, in a letter to Sir Robert Southwell, ''this country is undone, and the people swear they'll go to the Indies.'' The remonstrance of the Grand Jury, backed up by the zealous support of Lord Sydney and the Earl of Burlington, prevailed. Clancarthy was ordered out of his kingdom, but had a pension of £300 a-year allowed him on condition that he would never take up arms against the Protestant succession. He went to reside at Hamburg, where he purchased a little island, in which he died in 1734, leaving two sons-Robert and Justin. Upon his death, his eldest son, Robert, became fifth Earl of Clancarthy. He petitioned George the Second to restore him to his estates-at that time worth one hundred and fifty thousand pounds per annum-and the King was so favourable to his suit as to send letters of recommendation to that effect to the lord-lieutenant. But the new owners speedily took the alarm, and memorialized the English Parliament against the project. The end of the matter was a compromise. Clancarthy got a sum of money in hand, and was promoted to the command of his Majesty's ship of war, the ''Adventure.'' Being suspected of a leaning towards the Stuarts, he vacated his command an joined the French. Louis XV. entertained him handsomely. He gave him apartments in his own palace, rank in the army, and gave him a pension of a thousand a-year. Nevertheless, his love for England was so great, that he removed to Boulogne-sur-Mer, as he used to say, in order that he might live and die in sight of his native country. He died in 1770, in the eighty-fourth year of his age, leaving two sons-both officers in the French service-nothing but his name. They died, as is believed, issueless.
We think the Bandon people showed more prudence in their resolve than their brethren of Derry. The latter rose on William's landing; but the Bandonians first waited to see how he would be received, and finding he was proclaimed king, they seized on the first opportunity to declare in his favour.
At the period of which we write, a portion of the space now occupied by the present main entrance to Kilbrogan Church was the site of an old two-storied house, whose big bay windows, high pointed gables, and conical roof, formed an appropriate residence for its well-known inhabitant.
The tenant-on-chief of this gloomy-looking domicile was an elderly lady, called Katty Holt. Tradition represents her as a thin, skinny, wicked old woman, whose tongue never stopped unless she was asleep-and even then in her soundest slumbers she kept it going-whilst others state that it was only when she opened her big, old bible, and slowly ran her eyes over some of its pages, that it was in reality, at rest.
One so fond of taking must, of course, be fond of gossiping; and , in order to gratify this innocent propensity, she used to allow her neighbours to pass through her house, in their direct path to the church.* This being found very convenient, many availed themselves of her kindness, and afforded Katty thereby unlimited opportunities for a chat. In course of time the passage became such a regular thoroughfare on Sundays, that numbers were able to go in and out without attracting more than ordinary notice.
The leaders of the movement took advantage of this; and on the return of the congregation from noon-day service on the following Sunday, they privately went up stairs. Being all assembled, their first act was to appoint old Hardinge chairman; after which they unanimously agreed on disarming the garrison at cock-crow the next morning. Arrangements were then made for perfecting the design. Those who were present undertook to induce all those on whom they could rely to join them. They were to report progress at stated intervals up to ten o'clock that night, by which hour it was hoped every detail would be satisfactorily arranged. Finally they separated, after entrusting to the church bell of Kilbrogan the ominous duty of announcing on the coming morn that the very eventful moment had a length arrived. They all slipped away as quietly as they had entered. One or two went out by the front door, but the greater portion got into the little gardens abutting on the churchyard, and thence into the houses of those neighbours on whose fidelity they could rely.
* Our local readers must be aware this was a great favour to the people in the neighbourhood, as otherwise they should pass through the North Church Lane, the only regular entrance at that time to Kilbrogan Church
Supposed to have been the Rev. John Hardinge, M.A. and D.D.-the same who (circa 1653) engaged in controversy with Dr. Worth, of Cork, on infant baptism.
These in their turn also became emissaries; and in a few hours all the male inhabitants were enrolled* -the Rev. George Synge, of Kibrogan, ''Ould Andy Symes,'' of Ballymoney, and the few of those who preached and practised the doctrine of non-resistance, alone standing aloof. The Presbyterians-and even the peace-loving Quakers joined in the movement to a man.
It may seem odd that the only one of the fair sex entrusted with the secret was Katty; but this was accounted for by the simple reason that it could not be helped. However the conspirators made a great parade of their confidence in her, pretending to consult her upon what they had resolved upon, and deliberating with her as to what they should do. All went on smoothly enough, until some one asked what they should do with the prisoners.
''Prisoners!'' screamed she, stamping her foot wickedly upon the ground, and looking forked-lightning, ''Oh, bring them to me-the popish varlets!-and see if I don't scratch their eyes out!''
* Another account is that the conspiracy was organized in Kilbrogan Church, after noon-services on Sunday; and that, in order to prevent any inkling of their intentions from getting abroad, the conspirators turned out all the women-relying upon that popular fallacy that a woman cannot keep a secret. One young woman, however, who happened to be a servant at Edward's Inn, where Captain O'Neil had his quarters, contrived to hide herself under one of the seats, and heard all; and her heart being probably smitten by the jack-boots and feather of the gallant O'Neil, she watched anxiously throughout the night; and when she heard the first of the bell, she ran up to his room and urged him to fly for his life. He had only time to throw on a few articles of clothing, when a loud knocking was heard at the front door. He hastened as fast as he could to the door leading into the back premises; and once in the yard, it was but the work of a minute to scale the wall and be off. Notwithstanding, he had a very narrow escape, as he was pursued for several miles, and nearly overtaken.
Rev. Andrew Symes, who spent a great deal of his time in Bandon, was appointed rector of Ballymoney upon the death of the Rev. Isaac Mansfield in 1688. He was born in 1662; married at St. Fin Bar's, Cork, to Bridget Doherty, in 1692; and died in 1718. Although very corpulent, he was active and strong. Whilst running a foot race on one occasion with another stout defender of the church militant, he so far distanced him, that when he arrived near home-in a fit of generosity to his opponent-he snatched up a couple of bystanders, and tucking one under each arm, he continued the race thus weighted; and arriving victoriously at the winning post, he claimed and received the stakes.
One of these was subsequently arraigned before some of the Society of Friends at Cork, and asked why it was that he, a Quaker, could join in such an enterprise. ''I know I am a Quaker,'' quoth the follower of George Fox, ''but I also know I'm a Bandonian.''
After spending many anxious hours, the Bandon men dispersed to their homes; where some quietly retired to bed, whist others anxiously continued awaiting the first cold, pale streak of the coming day-a day which would probably see them reveling in all the joys of recently acquired freedom, or, perhaps, throw its long, silent shadows on their newly-made graves.
The day broke; the cock crew; but the church bell didn't ring. This was owing to a desperate encounter taking place between Jack Sullivan, the sexton, and his wife, Nancy. Jack didn't like the job. If they gained the victory it would be all well enough, but if they didn't-here he pulled up the waistband of his sheep-skin breaches, and after scratching his head as if to irritate his meditative powers into full play, he was more than half disposed to go home again. Nancy arrived just at this crisis in the fate of James's garrison
Having missed Jack from her side, she thought that he must be engaged in something more than usually important when he would slip away without telling her a word about it; and like all sensible married women, she thought that a husband ought to have no secrets from his wife. in a few words he told her all. She warmly approved of the design, and urged him to do his duty like a man. But Jack wouldn't.
''Then I'll do it myself,'' she cried, rushing forward to seize the bell-rope; but he prevented her.
And now a regular hard fight took place between them; but where is the wife that's not victorious in the end? and Jack's case was no exception to this rule. Nancy proved to be the queen of trumps, and descending upon the knave of spades, she dealt him such a bad hand as to render it a losing game for him to continue opposed to her any longer. The following up her lead, she bounded over his prostate body, and rang the bell, crying out at the same time-''O Lord, spare not the Philistines!''
The bell toiled out a loud encouraging sound. The Bandon men rushed out, and the garrison which was quartered on the inhabitants was disarmed. All the horses, accoutrements, arms, and ammunition were taken, but, we regret to say, with the loss of life.
It was not the intention of the Bandon people to have shed any blood on this occasion, but owing to the darkness of the morning and the confusion caused by the sudden rush, eight of the soldiers, who had seized their arms and continued to make resistance, were unfortunately killed. Of these, three-namely, Sergeant John Barry and two privates of the troop of horse-being Protestants, were buried in Kilbrogan; the other five were buried in the graveyard attached to the Roman Catholic chapel in the same parish. The disarmed men were conducted outside North-gate, from whence they all proceeded to Cork.
It is owing to these events having taken place on a dark Monday morning that the inhabitants of Bandon have been called ''Black Mondays;'' and the neighbouring peasantry still stoutly affirm that ever since a black cloud hangs over Bandon. The town is called ''South Derry,'' because the people of Bandon rose in the South just as the townspeople of Derry did some weeks previously in the North.
The ''Black Mondays'' did not long enjoy the fruit of their victory; as, shortly after, Major-General Justin McCarthy* (an officer who had served many years with distinction in the French army), together with the Earl of Clancarthy and twelve thousand men-amongst who were the four regiments of Clancarthy, O'Brien, Dillon, and Owen McCarthy-marched against them from Cork.
The Bandonians could make no resistance. They had no arms, save the few muskets and swords taken from the men under O'Neil's command, and the six old rusty pieces of ordinance sent them nearly fifty years before by the Earl of Cork-and which, if indeed to go off at all, were more likely to prove dangerous to themselves than to their enemies. They had no hopes of assistance from any of the towns in the neighbourhood, as their inhabitants had been long since disarmed. Under these circumstances they were almost at the mercy of the besiegers.
McCarthy surrounded the town, and peremptorily demanded that the leaders of the late revolt should be given up to him. The besieged replied that they had no objection to treat about delivering the town into his hands upon honourable terms; but as for giving up their leaders, their answer was-''No surrender!''
This spirited reply, however, availed them nothing; for McCarthy having taken the town, was about to lead forth ten of the principal men to execution, after which he intended destroying not only the town, but also the inhabitants, with fire; all of which he would most assuredly have done, were it not for the interposition of their fellow-citizen, Dr. Brady-who being a recognized follower of King James, and an ardent admirer of the theories then in vogue with the Jacobites, had great influence with that party, by which means he was enabled to induce McCarthy to come to terms; and these were of so mild a nature, that he must have had the dictation of them himself, as the Bandonians were only asked to pay fifteen hundred pounds-cash down-and to reimburse the officers, troopers, and soldiers for their losses and the damages they sustained. There was not a word about hostages or the demolition of the walls, as mentioned by Smith.
The greater portion of the money was borrowed from some of their Protestant friends in Cork-amongst whom was Mr. William Chartres, and alderman of that city-and some from their fellow-townsmen, Mr. Cornelius Conner.
To secure the repayment of this sum, and whatever interest might accrue from time to time, the following, with others, passed their bonds, and became personally liable for the entire amount:-James Dixon, John Nash, Saul Bruce, Thomas Foster, and Robert White.
* ''Ne Cede'' has since been added to the town arms. It is supposed to be engraved on a stone over the centre arch of the bridge, looking east.
Although there is no reference in the treaty of peace to the demolition of the walls, as stated by Dr. Smith in his history of the county of Cork, yet a portion of the were thrown down-perhaps after the treaty was signed. That they were thrown down is evidenced by a presentment passed at the Cork Assizes, December 9yh, 1690, which states that ''it is ordered that the inhabitants within four miles of Bandon contribute their labour towards the erecting and securing of the wall s of the said town, thrown down by Papists.'' In 1770 another presentment passed the General Quarter Sessions held on Bandon, '' for making up the walls of Bandon by the labour of the Popish inhabitants of Kilbrogan.''
The articles of peace were signed on the 2nd of March, 1689-90, by Major-General McCarthy, on behalf of King James, and Dixon, Nash, Bruce, and Forester, on behalf of the townspeople.
When Tyrconnell heard the arrangement that had been come to, he wrote McCarthy on the 10th of March, stating ''that he was sorry a treaty had been entered into with the people of Bandon until the authors of the disturbance were brought to justice ;'' and-in allusion, probably, to the unwillingless of the Protestant soldiery to do anything injurious to the Bandonians-he adds:-''The army we shall new-model when the King arrives; and till that be done it is impossible to make them useful.''
When Chief-Justice Nugent,* who presided at the Cork Spring Assizes this year, became aware of the articles entered into with the Bandonians, he cancelled them at the instigation of no less a personage than King James himself; who, upon his arrival from Kinsale during the sitting of the court, was made aware of all the circumstances connected with the revolt, on hearing which he became so exasperated with those who dared to raise the first standard of defiance in the South-and that, too, at a distance of only nine miles from the very sea-port town, where he was daily expected with a French fleet, and an army second in discipline and equipment to none in Europe-that he order indictments for high-treason to be prepared against them on the spot.
The Grand Jury, constituted as it was of men to whom the very name of Bandon was odious, could not be expected to show them either justice or mercy. Accordingly true bills were found; and the Bandon men would soon be arraigned for the highest offence known to the law, and soon after on the scaffold have to undergo death with all the dire concomitants of a conviction for treason, were it not for the urgent intercessions of the same Dr. Brady, who, not more than a fortnight before, had used his good offices with General McCarthy on their behalf; and who was now called upon again to go over the same ground with James.
* Chief-Justice Nugent-created by James, Baron Nugent, of Riverstown, county Westmeath, in 1669-was the second son to the Earl of Westmeath (the same who was deprived of his titles and estates by Cromwell, for the active part he took in the great rebellion). His appointment to the chief-justiceship was for him a lucky one, as he was enable to decide whether the attainders and forfeitures which left himself and his friends outlaws and beggars should be reversed or not. Previous to Tyrconnell's arrival he was a man of no repute, and was only known amongst his brethren at the bar by his broguish tongue and his little knowledge of the law. He married Marian, daughter of Henry, Viscount Kingsland. He was outlawed by William the Third. He died in 1715.
''About seven in the evening,'' says Dean Davis in his journal, ''I got into the park [London], and received an account that King James, in Ireland, proceeded very severely against the Protestants; and, notwithstanding that he had promised a pardon to the men of Bandon, many of them were indicted at the assizes, and had capias's issued against them.''
But the man he had to contend with this time was the reverse of the former. McCarthy was a man of good sense, and a soldier; James was a religious bigot and a poltroon. Over and over again the humane divine reminded his king that he act of his general was the act of himself; but he could scarcely be prevailed upon to listen to them, and all Brady gained by his mediation was the delay of a few days.
The royal mind was as unshaken as ever; and when the merciless monarch did set out for Dublin, he left peremptory instructions behind him to have the Bandon rebels severely dealt with.* Nugent, only too glad to carry out his Majesty's views in these particulars, ordered them on their trial at once.
There they stood, unflinching and undismayed-although there was no gleam of hope to soften the gloom of that destiny which now appeared inevitable. Before them sat the Irish Jefferies, and beside him was the gibbet. But the darkest hour is that which precedes the dawn.
McCarthy, who had signed the terms of capitulation on behalf of James, and who felt himself bound in honour to maintain his promises with the Bandon people, could not look on himself in any other light than that of an accessory to their murder if he did not energetically interfere. Accordingly he urged the Chief Justice to abide by the peace he had made; but finding importunities of no avail with that worthy, he walked in contumaciously upon the bench, and dared him.
* It is stated that James was heard to say that he would trust no Protestant; that all the Protestants of Ireland were Cromwellians, and deserved to have their throats cut; that they stunk in his nostrils, &c.
This was not the first time General McCarthy bullied the bench. On another occasion he threatened the judge (Sir John Meade), because he refused to direct the jury to bring in a verdict of guilty against certain prisoners then arraigned before him
Thus menaced and overawed, Nugent, '' who had resolved on serving them as he served Mr. Browne,'' gave way. The trial was postponed for a time, when it was again heard-but before a tribunal where opposing counsel were represented by contending armies, where the leaders on both sides were kings, and where the point at issue was the welfare of nations. This court sat upon the never to be forgotten banks of the Boyne.
The names of these old Bandon heroes, over whose devoted heads the sword of Damocles hung so long, where subsequently inserted in the Act of Attainder, and are as follows:-
|Arthur Bernard, Castle-Mahon, Bandon||Henry Jones, Bandon|
|Ralph Chartres, Bandon||Thomas Ware, Nucestown|
|Ralph Clear, Bandon||Phillip White, Brinny|
|John Sullivan, Bandon||William Ware, Nucestown|
|Thomas Dennis, Bandon||Sampson Twogood, Bandon|
|Robert Gookin, Kilcoleman||Samuel Sweete, Bandon|
We mentioned that Chief-Justice Nugent had resolved on serving the Bandon men as he served M. Browne; and had done so, the Bandonians would heave had good reason to complain of his cruelty and atrocity, as well as that of his royal master.
Mr. Browne's case was a melancholy one. It appears that, some short time before James's arrival, Nugent had pronounced it treason for any Protestant to keep arms, or even to wear a sword, after the King's proclamation. Many did so notwithstanding, as they had no other means of protecting themselves and their property from the continued attacks of the rapparees and other lawless bodies. which at that time roamed about the county unmolested. Mr. Browne, a county of Cork man, was one who retained his weapons, and being seen in company with some men who were armed, he was pursued. He was soon overtaken and brought before Judge Daly at Limerick. Upon examining into the case, Daly, who saw nothing unconstitutional in a man's being prepared to defend himself when attacked, dismissed him, considering him innocent of any charge that could support an indictment. Nevertheless he was arrested again, and tried for the same offence before the Chief-Justice at the Cork Assizes.
At first Nugent was disposed to take the same view of the matter as Daly, although it was he himself who pronounced the retaining of arms to amount to treason; but he probably thought that, where it was proved the arms were held only for purposes of defence, the keeping of them would not amount to a capital offence. Be that as it may, after a consultation with King James, who was then in Cork, he proceeded vigorously against the unfortunate accused; and an accommodating jury brought in a verdict of guilty against him.
Everybody thought that James's only object was to have an opportunity of showing his clemency. That he wished, in fact, to inaugurate his arrival in Ireland with an act of grace-a harbinger of the mild and conciliatory policy he intended to pursue here. But it was far otherwise. Notwithstanding that the miserable man's wife and his six little children threw themselves at his feet, and implored him to exercise his royal prerogative of mercy in their favour, he rejected them.
Maddened at the thought of losing her husband, the unhappy woman went amongst he friends; and making interest with every on she could, again she flung herself at James's feet, and besought his pardon; but this effort of hers was more than unvailing, for, adding insult to injustice, he spurned her.
This unfortunate man was first half-hanged, then his bowels were torn out, and his body cut into quarters.
This one act of atrocity and bad policy disgusted and confounded many of those who oscillated between their own good sense and the doctrine that a king can do no wrong.
It was useless to look for a change in him; and wherever the news reached, the hearers became convinced that James was as bigoted, as brutal, and as bloodthirsty as ever.
James the Second sailed from Brest on board the St. Michael, and landed at Kinsale on the evening of Wednesday, March 12th.*
It is said that Tyrconnell was opposed to James's coming to Ireland, and even sent over Lord Mountjoy and Chief-Baron Rice to put him against it. But he did not anticipate any success, as he felt convinced the French court would oppose his wishes with all their power. ''For that court,'' said Tyrconnell, ''minds nothing but its own interest; and they would not care if Ireland was sunk in the pit of hell, so they could but give the Prince of Orange but three month's diversion. But if the King be persuaded to ruin his fastest friends to do himself no service, only to gratify France, he is neither as merciful, nor so wise, as I believe him to be. If he recover England, Ireland will fall to him as a matter of course; but he can never expect to conquer England by Ireland. If he attempted it, he ruins himself to do himself no kindness, but rather to exasperate England the more, and make his restoration impossible.''
* A presentment was passed at the Cork Spring Assizes for raising the sum of £420 off the country, to supply the French fleet that brought James over with fifty fat oxen and four hundred fat wethers, ''as a small acknowledgement of the universal thanks due to officers and seamen for transporting his Majesty hither.''
An old poet tells us the reverse. He says:-
''He that would England win,
Must with Ireland first begin.''
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