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HISTORY OF BANDON
[Pages 122-148] FIRST APPEARANCE OF THE REBELLION IN THE COUNTY OF CORK - THE FIRST GOVERNOR OF BANDON-BRIDGE - NAMES OF THE IRISH GENTRY IN THIS LOCALITY WHO WERE INDICTED AT THE GREAT SESSIONS HELD AT YOUGHAL - OLD CLEAR AND HIS FORTY SPARTANS - THE BANDONIANS PURSUE A BAND OF MARAUDERS INTO KERRY - MASSACRE OF THE CONGREGATIONS AT COOLE CHURCH - COMMISSIONERS SENT TO BANDON TO TAKE THE EVIDENCE OF THE SETTLERS CONCERNING THEIR LOSSES IN THE REBELLION - THE CESSATION - THE GLAMORGAN TREATY - THE ORMOND TREATY - THE BANDONIANS PROTEST AGAINST SUCH PACKED TERMS OF PEACE - A MINT ESTABLISHED IN BANDON.
The rebellion made its first appearance in this county at Glandore; where, we are told, several of the English were gagged to death; and where, in fiendish sport, the rebels forced a Presbyterian clergyman to eat a piece of his own flesh. The flames soon spread far and near; and the outlaying settlers flocked into Bandon, the only walled-in town to the west of Cork. Here they remained huddled together, and when death strode in amongst them; and from despondency at the loss of all the industry of their lives, or the hopelessness of their prospects,-or, it may be, from the overcrowding of themselves,- they fell unresistingly into his embrace; and before the rebellion was one year old, one thousand of them lay buried within the churchyard walls.
When loyal men were so scarce, and when the exertions demanded of them were so great, it could not be expected that the Bandonians, who were pre-eminent for their loyalty to England, would remain indifferent spectators of the dreadful acts of rapine and blood which were being perpetrated around them. Accordingly, they formed themselves into a regimen of foot, and a troop of horse; and no body of men in Ireland, similar in number, did the State more excellent service.
There were many cruelties and murders committed by the insurgents in our neighbourhood, and these, for the most part, upon people who carried no arms, and who shunned the very site of blood. Margery White, whilst detained a prisoner at Daniel MacCarthy’s door, was run through the body with the spit; another unhappy woman was half hanged, then she was cut down, and her body was trampled upon by horses until her protruding intestines presented a revolting sight.
The chief magistrate of Clonakilty, the gentleman who lived on the best of terms with his Irish neighbours, and who felt such confidence in them, that not only did he refused to avail himself of the protecting walls of Bandon, but he absolutely preferred residing amongst those whose ample promises of security he must have deemed unnecessary. This fearless reliance on their humanity-a piece of generous good faith which would have found a responsive chord in the breast of a cannibal-was of no moment with them. Laying hands on him, they made him drink till he sickened; they then compelled him to swallow what his stomach had ejected, and then they hanged him.
Mrs. Stringer and Richard Mewdon, whilst returning to Bandon, were seized by MacCarthy Reagh’s troop of horse; and, having been tied back to back, endured such torture from the tightness of the cords “that they earnestly cried and prayed to MacCarthy that he would either unbind them or take away their lives quite.” He did unbind them; and they were then placed in a large dungeon under the castle wall, from whence they were brought on the following morning and rebound for two days more, at the end of which time Mewdon was brought to the gallows (which seems to have been a fixture at Kilbrittain, “having been firmly built within sight of the castle, for hanging the English“), and executed. When the rope was removed from poor Mewdon’s neck it was placed around Mrs. Stringers. Her earthy career was being brought to a close, and in a few minutes her corpse would be swinging in the air, had not one of our own sex (the mother of MacCarthy, who had been looking on out of one of the castle windows), made an effort to save her, and sent a priest to her, who asked her what religion she was of. Although the gibbet loomed over her, and although the fatal halter was adjusted for its horrible purpose, the poor woman avowed that she was a Protestant, and, moreover, that she would die one.*
* Many Protestants, who had been induced to declare themselves Roman Catholics in the hope of saving their lives, were immediately put to death least they should again become heretics.
1642- Lord Cork did not forget to see after the defences of Bandon. In a letter to Lord Goring, dated January 6th, he says:-“my son, Kinalmeaky,* had been at his own town of Bandon-Bridge before this time, but his lady having been stayed here (Youghal) these three weeks by contrary winds; but so soon as her foot is on ship board, his foot shall be in the stirrup to go to Bandon-Bridge, of which town I hope he shall give a good account, for he hath a fair rising-out in the town and the suburbs thereof; and I’ve and I have put up portcullises for the strengthening of the gates, and planted six pieces of ordinance for the better defense thereof; for, I thank God, I have so planted that town as there is neither an Irishman nor Papist within the walls; and so can no town or corporation say.”
On the 12th of January Kinalmeaky, and was appointed the first governor of Bandon-Bridge. At the time of his arrival matters were in pitiable plight. The rebels had ventured within two miles of the town, and swept away all the cattle with them to Muskerry. They also plundered Castletown, Enniskeane and Newcestown, from the effects of which the latter place never recovered; and they overran the whole country, ravaging and laying waste whatever they could lay their hands upon. So utterly abandoned had these miscreants become, that even Lord Muskerry† (their own commander), executed several of them for thieving; and did what amounted to the same thing with more of them,-“ he sent them to Bandon, where they soon met with their deserts.”
* Lord Boyle (Lord Kinalmeaky,), second son of the first Earl of Cork, was born on the 23rd of May, 1619; and on the 28th of May, 1627 (when he was only eight years old), he was created Baron of Bandon-Bridge and Viscount Boyle of Kinalmeaky. He married on the 26th of December, 1638, the lady Elizabeth Fielding, third daughter of William, Earl of Denbeigh, but had no issue. Lord Cork, in a letter to Mr. Marcombes, (his son’s tutor), gives an account of his marriage. He says:-"On St. Stephen's Day, my son, Kinalmeaky, was married in the Kings’ chapel to the lady Elizabeth Fielding, daughter of the Countess of Denbeigh. The King (Charles the First), gave her away in marriage onto him, and the Queen presented her with a jewel, valued at fifteen hundred pounds, which the King, with his own hands, put about her neck, and did the young couple all honours and grace, both with revelling, feasting, and bringing to their bed in Court.” Upon the accession of Charles the Second, long after Kinalmeaky’s death his widow was created Countess of Guildford.
† Donogh MacCarthy More (Lord Muskerry), “a facetious fellow, and a good companion,” owned the castles of Macroom and Blarney. He married a sister of Duke of Ormond, and was general of the Irish forces in Munster. He took a very prominent part in the great rebellion, for which all his estates were forfeited by Cromwell; but subsequently, through the influences of the Duke of Ormond, the greater portion of them were restored by Charles the Second, by who also, in 1658,; this most active and zealous rebellious chieftain was raised to the earldom Clancarthy; and a special act was incorporated with the Act of Settlement, entitled “an Act for restoring Donogh, Earl of Clancarthy, and Charles, Viscount Muskerry, to their blood and honours; and for investing in settling them in their several estates.” Lord Clancarthy died in London, August 5th, 1665. By is wife he had three sons:-Charles, Callaghan, and Justin. Charles (Lord Muskerry), died some weeks before his father, having fallen in the great naval engagement which was fought with the Dutch in Southhold Bay, June 2nd, 1665, being killed by a cannon shot,-the very same which killed Richard, third son of the Earl of Cork, and Berkeley, Earl of Falmouth, the three of whom were officers on board the same ship with the Duke of York (afterwards James the Second), with whom young Lord Muskerry was a great favourite. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. Upon Clancarthy’s decease, he was succeeded by his grandson, Charles James, the only surviving son of Lord Muskerry; and he dying a minor, was succeeded by his uncle Callaghan. He married Elizabeth daughter of the Earl of Kildare, by whom he had four daughters and a son (Donogh the fourth Earl).
The rebellion spread with such rapidity through the Irish gentry in this county, that at the quarter sessions held on the second of August in this year at Youghal, before Lord Cork, presided as Custos Rotulorum, assisted by his three sons, Dungarvan, Kinalmeaky, and Broghill, and no less than eight noblemen and eleven hundred gentlemen in the counties of Cork and Waterford were indicted for treason. Among those indicted and outlawed in the Kings’ Bench from our neighbourhood were:-
Arundell, Garrett, Agludullane McCarthy, Florence, Derry.
Arundell, Garrett, Darrig Carty, Florence McDermody, Maddame.
Barry, Redmond, Lisgriffin O’Crowly, Teige McDavid, Dromielough
Barry, Nicholas, Drinagh McCarthy, Cormack, Manche.
Barry, John, Drinagh McCarthy, Oge, Manche.
Baldwin, Walter, Garanancomy McCarthy, Donell, Manche
Baldwin, Henry, Macroom Carthy, Owen McDonogh, Cahirkirky
Barry, William McShane, Burren Carthy, Donell McOwen, Cahirkirky
Barry, William, Lislee Crowly, Donell McTeige, Shynagh
Barry, John, Downarhug O‘Crowly, John McTeige Oge, Skeaff
Barry, John, Downdedy O’Crowly, Redmond McTeige, Skeaff
Barry, William, Downdedy O’Crowly, David, Shynagh
Barry, Richard, Downdedy O’Crowly, Fynyn, Boultinagh
McCarthy, Donogh, Kilbrittain Carthy, Cormack Fynyn, Boultinagh
McCarthy, Florence, Castle-Donovan O’Crowly, Teige, Skeaff
McCarthy, Teige, al. O’Downy, Dunmanway Carthy, Cnogher McDermody, Knockcullen
McCarthy, Teige, al. O’Norse, Togher - Shily, his wife
Carthy, Dermot McTeige, Dunmanway O’Crowly, Donogh McTeige, Skeaff
Carthy, Florence McDonnell, Banduff Carthy, Teige McFynyn, Curry-Crowly
Carthy, Donell McFynyn, Banduff Carthy, Cnogher McDermody, Garranure.
Carthy, Kragher Dermody, Maddame Hurly, Randal Oge, Ballinacarriga
O’Carthy, Dermod McDonogh, Maulebracke. Hurly, William, Ballinwarde
O’Coghlane, Phillip, Enniskeane Hurly, William, Lisgubby
O’Crowly, Humphrey Oge, (Yeoman), Enniskeane Hurly, Ellen (widow). Grillagh
McCarthy, Donogh (Lord Viscount Muskerry), Blarney O’Houghlin, Dermod McFynyn, Rathdrought
McCarthy, Charles, Castlemore Hurly, James, Ballinwarde
Carthy, Teige McCormack, Anglish Totane, Daniel McTeige, Kilmaloody
McCahir, Cowne, Kilcrea Totane, Dermod McTeige, Killmaloody
Creagh, Patrick, Kilcrea Totane, Mahowne McTeige, Kilmaloody
Coddagh, Cormack, Misshaneglasse O’Keiffe, Keffe, Killcollman
Coddagh, Owen, Misshaneglasse Long, John (High Sheriff), Mount Long
O’Donovan, Donell, Castle-Donovan O’Leary, Kilcaskan
O’Donovan, Donell Oge, Castel-Donovan O’Leary, Cornelius McDonogh, Grange
O’Doogan, William (Yeoman), Mosshanglasse O’Leary, Donell, Grange
Hitchcock, John, Kilmurry Murphy, Donogh, Brinny
Hodnett, Edmund, Courtmacsherry Nugent, Redmond, Castletown
O’Hea, Thomas, Pallice McOwen, Teige, Carhue
O’Hea, William Oge, Pallice McOwen, Dermod, Knockanroe
O’Hart, Teige, Knock Power, Robert, Castletown
Hodnett, James Fitz-Edmund, Courtmacsherry Roch, Patrick, Poulnalonge
Hurly, Randal, Ballinacarriga Roch, Edward, Castletown
McSwiney, Owen, Misshaneglasse
From the names and localities just mentioned it will be seen that Bandon was hemmed-in on all sides. It was like a glade surrounded by a dense forest. Should our townsmen endeavour to piece the rebel lines, they should confront the Rochs and the McCarthy on the east, and the Hurlys, the Donovans, and the McCathy’s on the west. It was even worse in the north and south. The McSwineys, the Cloddaghs, and the McCarthy;s lay between Bandon and the country to the north; and the Arundells, the Barrys, the Hodnetts, and the McCarthys between it and the country lying to the south.
The rebels did not remain content with merely drawing a cordon around Bandon. Occasionally some of them ventured up to the very walls of the town, and drove away the cattle. The McCarthys, from Kilcrea, having heard that the Bandon and Kinsale troops of horse would leave Bandon on a foraging expedition at a certain hour, resolved to take advantage of their absence, and come in here on a foraging expedition of their own. Accordingly, they came in and drove away all the cattle they found grazing outside the walls; and were proceeding leisurely homewards (probably congratulating themselves on their good fortune), when the Bandon troop, which, by some mischance, were delayed beyond the hour appointed for setting out to meet the Kinsale troop, became aware of what was going on, and followed in pursuit. They came up with the marauders at Brinny-Bridge. The cattle were soon the property of their former owners. They then fell on the spoilers themselves. They made no resistance, but fled at once into Kilmore bog for safety, where fifty of them were overtaken and killed.
Upon another occasion, the rebels from Carrigadrohid, having ascertained that the Bandon men were away somewhere, advanced in regular order to attack the town, which was but very poorly defended, having been entrusted to the charge of old Ralph Clear, and a guard of forty men. Old Ralph heard of their approach, and instead of allowing the enemy to waste their strength on the defences, he depended on a piece of strategy, which may be commended simply on the grounds of its success. At the head of his forty Spartans, he walked boldly up Barry’s Walk, and along the old road to Macroom, to meet the foe. In a short time he met with two of the enemies advanced scouts, who had been sent forward to reconnoiter and see if the Bandonians were on the alert. With these old Clear, who pretended not to know who they were, entered into friendly conversation. Perceiving that their office was not apparently suspected, they became somewhat emboldened, and asked him was he going to fight the Irish forces with such a handful of men. “Oh!” said he, “we are only the advance guard of our party. The main body are gone round so as to get into the enemies rear, and prevent their escape;” adding, with a confident shake of the head, “that not a man of them would be dead and comfortably damned before starlight.”
Seeing the effect this piece of bravado had a pawn his hearers, he ordered his men to halt and to see to their pieces, as they would not have long to wait for the signal now. This was enough for the scouts. They quietly slipt away; and, having got out of musket range, they ran with tremendous haste till they reach their main body, where, pale with fright, they told all that they had heard. This had such an effect on the adventurers from Carrigadrohid, that they fled in consternation, and in so much disorder, that, when the Bandon people arrived at the bottom of the steep hill near Gurteen House, they found one poor fellow lying dead upon the road, who, in his eagerness to escape, had fallen headlong, and absolutely broke his neck
The Bandon people did not always remain on the defensive, either. They also ventured out; and not only cut the hostile cordon, but, upon one occasion, absolutely followed the foe all the way into Kerry. It appears that the chief of Ardtully Castle, at the head of a strong force, penetrated into the Carberries, and, encouraged by his great success there, marched into Kinalmeaky; and having collected a great spoil, both in prisoners and in cattle, was making off to his wild retreat in the fastnesses of Kerry. But the Bandonians were determined he should not escape so easily. Setting out, alone and unaided,* they pursued the Kerry men in hot haste through Inchigeela, through Lackalaun, and up through the sullen hills, which seemed to frown upon the intruding steps of the audacious Sassenach.
* The Bandon regiment of militia were away at this time. The Kerry expedition, and other enterprises undertaken about this period, were performed by the townspeople themselves.
They came up with them on a heath-grown flat, within three miles of the chieftain’s home; and immediately the fight began. For some time the contest was maintained on either side with great spirit. After all the fatigue and the danger the marauders had undergone, better almost that they should perish where they stood than be deprived of their spoils- and that within sight of their very doors! To the Bandon men victory was everything. If vanquished, they would be followed by an exultant foe; and how could they expect to escape through forty miles of country abounding with bogs and woods, and inhabited by those whom the news of their overthrow would convert into an active enemy, who would confront them at every step? They knew this, and they knew that defeat was death.
Both the contending parties fought desperately. The towering mountains, where the silence was seldom broken save by the croak of the raven or the crow of the grouse, now resounded with the fierce shouts of a bitter strife. At length the Lord of Ardtully fell, and he lay pouring out his life’s blood on the heather. His devoted followers lay scattered in scores all round him; and their dying moans mingling with his own, proclaimed that the Bandonians where the victors.* The victory was complete. The Bandon men secured all their prisoners and all the cattle, and their return to their homes, through a peaceable country, unmolested.
* The late Sir John Warren, on a portion of whose Kerry estate this sharp encounter took place, intended to open a few of the graves, and ascertain if the tradition, which stated that the dead were buried with their arms, was correct. He was deterred, however, from carrying out this intention, always to the difficulty of procuring a sufficient number of men, duly provided with crowbars, &c., to remove the enormous stones which the piety of the friends of those who had fallen had placed over their last resting place.
The rebellion was raging in every part of the country. The strong castle of Limerick was compelled to yield to the rebels. The castles of Askeaton and of Castlematrix were obliged to do the same. The garrison of Claughleigh surrendered to Richard Condon, upon promise of quarter and protection as far as Castlelyons; notwithstanding which, some of them were made prisoners, and the rest were murdered.
The garrison at Coole, which consisted of thirty-six of Lord Barrymore’s troopers, hearing of what Condon had done at Claughleigh, fled to the parish church of Coole for safety. Entering hurriedly, they barricaded the doors. It is Sunday morning, and the terrified Protestant inhabitants of the neighbourhood are assembled within its walls. On their knees, they are pouring out their souls before Him who gave them; and they are beseeching the great giver of all good to soften the hearts of those who are thirsty for their innocent blood. In less than half-an-hour after the sacred edifice is surrounded. They hear their death-knell in that demonic yell which pierces their very brain. In tremor, the helpless flock rise from their knees, and bid the each other a hurried farewell. The troops would not surrender without a promise of quarter. They asked but for their lives, and the lives of the poor sufferers who stood around them. This is granted. They require a guarantee. "The word of a soldier and a Christian!"
Enough! And now hope beams in every eye, and joy overspreads every face. The doors are thrown open; and groups of men, whose faces portray a fiendish expression, rush in, armed with pike and sword; and their blood begins to flow. It will suffice to say, that the little purling stream, whose silvery tones often tinkled in the ears of those whose eyes are now fast glazing in death, was soon swelled and reddened with their blood. Two only escaped. Lacey jumped through a window and made off. The other-namely, Mr. John Hutchings,* the gentleman upon whose lands the church stood- lay stretched out on the ground with the rest, apparently dead, having received a great many wounds. After sunset, however, the cold air gradually restored him. Conscious of all he had seen, he remained for some time motionless; but he listened, and listened eagerly, and there was no pacing sentinel. Occasionally a breeze disturbed the stiffened tresses, still moist with the agony and blood, which lay on the matron’s clammy, cold brow, or spread the golden lockets over a baby’s face. But there was no voice. Not even a timid whisper stole over that silent group, and asked, in a low tremulous tone, and in God’s name, if any friend was there. Taking courage, he at last ventured to look out from the gore-stained portals, and there was no human being or a light to be seen anywhere. Moving away from the ghastly companionship of those who are now far beyond the reach of human troubles, he was overtaken by a travelling tinker, with whom he struck a bargain, giving him his own clothes in exchange for those of the tinker and his paraphernalia. Putting those on, and slinging the budget across his shoulders, he contrived to reach the nearest loyal garrison in safety.
* The last of the Hutchings family, who lived in the neighborhood of Coole Church, was Thomas Hutchings, esquire, of Mohera. His daughter, Bridget, married Mr. William Dalton, of Castlelyons, and died in 1825.
So confident were the government of being able speedily to crush out the rebellion, that four months had not actually elapsed ere they empowered commissioners to proceed through Munster to ascertain the losses of the Protestant settlers. The commissions were issued under the great seal, by the Lords Justices; and the commissioners were directed to take evidence, upon oath, of all those sufferers who should present themselves for examination. Dean Grey and archdeacon Bisse were the two that came to Bandon. They sat here in the February of 1642, and again in the following October; and from the depositions sworn before them, we have been able to collect much interesting matter connected with the greatest effort ever made by the Celt to eject the Saxon.
Dean gray died peacefully in Bandon; but poor Bisse was waylaid and murdered on the road between Cork and Youghal, by one Garrett, of Dromaddath. For a long time his papers were believed to have been lost. All of them were missing in Temple’s time; “and it is owing to their seizure by the rebels,” says Cox, “that there is no full account of the losses and murders in Munster.” Although their existence was unknown to the public until not many years since, nevertheless, they were carefully preserved all through.
Mr. Gething tells us some particulars of their history in his evidence before Jenkins Lloyd, at Kilkenny, in 1652. After mentioning about Bisse’s death, he states, “that Lord Inchiquin sent to his lodgings in Youghal, and got the trunk and papers wherein the examinations taken were contained; and his lordship finding occasion shortly after to repair unto the King, then at Oxford, and understanding that there was, at the same time, agents with his Majesty, both form the British Protestants and the Irish rebels, he carried the trunk with him, intending to make use of it-to make known to his majesty the proceedings of the Irish; but his lordship finding occasion to return without using it, because of the prevalency of Irish agents at court, it was (as deponent believed) entrusted with Lott Peereigh-Perry-(formerly secretary to Sir William St. Leger), since deceased, whose wife and son resided at or near Audley, and in the county of Cambridge, where it was taken great care of. And that he had heard orders were given for sending the trunk to Sir Phillip Perceval, at London.” Mr. Gething concludes his evidence by remarking, “that Mr, Thomas Bettesworth, agent to the Protestant forces in Munster, can say something about it.”
1643- In the opening campaign of this year, Sir Charles Vavassor, who succeeded to the governorship of Bandon upon the death of Lord Kinalmeaky, resigned his appointment, and was replaced by Colonel Rowland St. Leger.
To show the confidence that existed here n the ultimate success of the English in the rebellion, we may mention that a lease was executed on the 23rd of May in this year, by Richard, Earl of Cork, to Matthias Anstis, of the premises described as situate lying, and being in the lands of Coolfadda, in the borough of Bandon aforesaid, &c.
Upon the 15th of September a cessation of arms was agreed upon for twelve months, between the Marquis of Ormond on the King’s side, and Lord Muskerry, Sir Lucas Dillon, Sir Robert Talbot, and others, on the part of the Irish. It was agreed that each party should keep possession of what they then held. The arrangement agreed upon for the county of Cork was:- “That a line was to be drawn from Youghal to Mogeely, thence to Fermoy, on to Mitchelstown and Liscarroll, and thence to Mallow. From Mallow to Cork, Carrigrohane, Rochfordstown, Bandon, Timoleague, and thence along the coast to Youghal.” All outside this boundary, on the land side, the rebels were to remain in undisturbed possession of.
September 15th, the date of the first cessation, Richard Boyle, the great Earl of Cork, died at the college of Youghal, in the seventy-seventh year of his age. Sir Richard Cox, speaking of him says:- “The noble Earl of Cork (Lord High Treasurer), was one of the most extraordinary men either that this or any other age produced, with respect to the great and just acquisitions of estates that he made, and the public works that he began and finished for the advancement of the English interest and the Protestant religion in Ireland, -as churches, alms-houses, free schools, bridges, castles, and towns (vide Lismore, Tallagh, Clonakilty, Enniskeane, Castletown, and Bandon), -insomuch, that when Cromwell saw the prodigious improvements in a country where he little expected to see them, he declared “that if there had been an Earl of Cork in every province in Ireland it would have been impossible for the Irish to have raised a rebellion.”
On the 24th of November in the previous year he made his will, and in it directed “that a free-school, and an alms-house for six men, be erected, of lime and stone, sawn timber and slate, in the place where he caused the foundations to be dug at Bandon-Bridge; and where, before the troubles, he had great part of the squared timber, hewn stone, and other materials brought for finishing that good work; and this to be done so soon as it should please God to send peace in this kingdom.” In addition to this, he also left instructions for the erection of a strong substantial bridge, as follows:-“And for that I much desire the good increase and prosperity of Bandon-Bridge and the inhabitants thereof, whom I have ever much tendered and respected, I do, therefore, declare is to be my will that there be a very strong and substantial bridge of lime and stone, with my arms cut in the stone to be set upon the wall thereof, erected over the river Bandon, within the town, where the timber bridge now stands.”
For the carrying out of this intent, he entrusted the provost for the time being, and other friends, to take the charge upon them, “that it might be gracefully,, strongly, and substantially done, without any fault or deceitful work, as other bridges of late have been.” He likewise bequeathed ten pounds per annum to the poor of Bandon, Coolfadda, and Clonakilty.
1644- The Confederates, as the Irish called themselves, broke most of the articles of the treaty; and the English were daily alarmed by intelligence of fresh conspiracies. In particular, there was a conspiracy planned by a friar named Mathews, and some others, to betray the city of Cork into Irish hands. Upon the discovery of this, and other designs of a similar nature, Lord Inchiquin was asked by the colonists to repudiate the cessation. They did not understand why they should be called upon to preserve religiously their side of the agreement, when those with whom they made the agreement, and who were equally bound to preserve it in its integrity with themselves, broke through it whenever they thought proper to do so.
A “manifestation,” containing a strong remonstrance against the armistice, was sent to the Parliament from this country, signed by Lord in Inchiquin, commander of the Protestant forces in Munster, Lord Broghill, governor of Youghal, Sir William Fenton, Knt., Lieutenant-Colonel William Brockett, governor of Kinsale, Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Searle, governor of Bandon, and Sergeant-Major Muschamp, governor of the Fort of Cork.
Inchiquin did not respond to the wishes of the memorialists, and put an end to the truce in Munster; and the Parliament being made aware of what he had done, not only sanctioned his proceedings, but showed a more substantial mark of their approval still, by conferring on him the Lord Presidency of Munster.
1654- The Confederates felt such confidence in their ability at this time, but they sent ambassadors to foreign nations. In France and they were represented at various times by Mr. Rochefort, Father Hartigan, Colonel Fitzwilliam, and Mr. Godfrey Baron. They received in return, MM. La Monariè, Du Maulin, and Talloon. They deputed to Spain, Father James Talbot; and received from that country the Count of Berehaven (O’Sullivan Bere), and Don Diego de la Torres. To the Pope they dispatch Mr. Richard Beling, and the Bishop of Ferns; and obtained from his Holiness, Peter Frances Scarampi, and the bishop of Firmo.
Father Hartigan, the French representative, carried on a very extensive correspondence with the Irish Supreme Council, specimens of which we subjoin from some of his reverence’s intercepted letters:- That my Lord Abbott Montague said to him, in his ear, “that he should write to your lordships not to trust most of the English, even the very Catholics of whom have more national than religious thoughts.” That the queen, talking of Ormond, said:-“ It was hard to trust, believe, or rely upon any Irishman that is a Protestant, for every such Irishman that goes to church does it against his conscience, and knows in his heart he betrays God.” “That Ormond is the viper, and an idolater of majesty.” “That Clanricarde got something from Essex, his brother-in-law, otherwise he would be for the Catholics.” “That they should write down the words uttered at table, and even in conversation, by Ormond, Clanricarde and Inchiquin” “That Clanricarde robs more from the Catholics then even the villainous Scots.” “That Castlehaven is rather nationally then religiously inclined.” “That the King is the easy, and not to be trusted.” “That the Queen will be the cast upon the Irish; and, therefore, advises them to play the cunning workman.”
As regards the Queen, it is but fair to state, that in one of her letters to Lord Digby, she says that many things written by this divine “are lies.”
After Charles’s flight from Oxford, he secretly sent over the Earl of the Glamorgan to conclude a peace with his rebellious Irish subjects-with those who, in fact, had all but extinguished the Protestant settlements in the country with the settler’s blood. As this treaty of peace (best known as the Glamorgan Treaty) is a document now rarely met with, we have much pleasure in laying copious extracts from it before our readers:-
“Articles of agreement made and concluded upon and between the Right Hon. Edward, Earl of Glamorgan and in pursuance and by virtue of his Majesty’s authority, under his signet and royal signature, bearing date at Oxford, 12th day of March, in the twentieth year of his reign, for and on behalf of his most excellent Majesty on the one part, and the Right Hon. Richard Lord Viscount Mountgarret, Lord President of the Supreme Council of the Confederate Catholics of Ireland, Lord Viscount Muskerry, &x., for and on behalf of his Majesty’s Roman Catholic subjects and the Catholic clergy of Ireland of the other part.”
“The Earl of Glamorgan doth grant, conclude, and agree with Lord Mountgarret. &c., that the Roman Catholic clergy shell and may, from henceforth and for ever, hold and enjoy all such lands, tenements, tithes, and hereditaments whatsoever by them respectively enjoyed within this kingdom, or by them possessed at any time since the three-and-twentieth day of October, 1641; and also, all such lands, tithes, &c., belonging to the clergy within this kingdom, other than such as are actually enjoyed by his Majesty’s Protestant clergy.”
By the second article:-
“It was agreed on and concluded by Lord Mountgarret, &c., that two parts in three of the lands, &c., mentioned in the preceding article, be disposed of and converted for the use of his Majesty’s forces, employed in his service, for three years next ensuing the feast of Easter; and the other third part to the use of the clergy; and so the like disposition to be renewed from three years to three years by the said clergy during the war.”
“It is also accorded and agreed on behalf of his Majesty, his heirs, &c., that his Excellency the Marquis of Ormond, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, or any other authorized, or to be authorized by his Majesty, shall not disturb the professors of the Roman Catholic religion in their present possession of their churches, lands, jurisdiction, or any other matters articled by the said earl; and furthermore, that an act shall be passed the next Parliament according to the tenor of the agreement, and concessions herein expressed.”
By this treaty, it will be perceived, that the rebels were confirmed for ever, not only in the possession of all the lands and tithes which they had wrested from the Protestant settlers, and which they then held, but also all that they at any time possessed since the breaking out of the rebellion; and, in addition, the church lands and tithes in the possession of laymen in this kingdom. So that all they took possession of they were to keep; all that his Majesty’s loyal subjects repossessed themselves of from them were to be surrendered to them; and “the lands and tithes, other than such as actually enjoyed by the Protestant clergy” (that is the church lands and tithes belonging to the laity, and which the Roman Catholic clergy did not add any time possess since the 23rd of October), they were also to have.
In order to properly estimate the concessions made by the King, our readers should bear in mind that, save the few castles held by the Bandonians, and some few others scattered up and down through the country, and the city of Cork, Youghal, Kinsale, and Bandon, all the rest of Munster was in the hands of the rebels; besides nearly the entire of the other three provinces.
So well pleased where the Confederates with their side of the bargain, that in a few days after the whole assembly unanimously voted “that they would send the King ten thousand men; and would refer to his Majesty’s pleasures such things about religion as Ormond either hath not the power or the inclination to grant.”
The Confederates belonged to the national party, or those who, having obtained what they required, were content to remain under the English crown. The religious party, on the contrary, were anxious to remove Ireland altogether form under British rule-not for the purpose of forming it into a separate kingdom, but to make it a dependency of the Court of Rome.
At the head of the latter party was the Pope’s Nuncio, John Baptiste Rinuccini, archbishop and prince of Firmo, “who, arriving in the nick of this business,” says Cox, “quite altered their measures and confounded their affairs;” as it was, this prelate, at the head of the clerical party, stirred up those animosities between the Irish and the old English-animosities which may have slept, but which were never forgotten.
The Nuncio landed at Kenmare on the 22nd of October, bringing with him two thousand swords, five hundred petronels, twenty thousand pounds of powder, and five or six trunks of Spanish gold. In his train were twenty-two Italians, and several ecclesiastics. The vessel, which brought over this precious freight (a frigate, carrying twenty-one guns), was chased by Captain Plunkett, in a ship belonging to the Parliament; and, had not a fire broken out in the cook’s galley, the Puritanical old salt would have sent his Grace of Firmo and his clerical friends-certainly not to Kilkenny.
At Kilkenny he was received by the Supreme Council with transports of delight, and was conducted with great state to the castle; and here, in the great hall, he made a grand speech; and among other things he did religiously swear “to do nothing prejudicial to the King.” Nevertheless, he refused to countenance any agreement between his Majesty and the rebels, that did not stipulate to restore the tithes to the priesthood; and he wrote a peremptory letter to his friend, the Titular bishop of Kildare, to the effect that if the Supreme Council should agree with Ormond he would quit the kingdom, and take all the bishops with him.
The English were not aware of all these secret negotiations between Glamorgan and the Supreme Council until after the defeat of the Irish at Sligo, upon which occasion the Roman Catholic bishop of Tuam was killed, and in his pocket was found a copy of the articles of peace, which, says Cox, “displayed such a quantity of intrigue as amazed the whole Protestant party.”
1646- On the 18th of March another peace was made between the Marguis of Ormond, the Lord Lieutenant, on behalf or the King, and Lord Muskerry, on behalf of the rebels; the substance of which, in reference to our subject, was:-That all attainders, indictments, out-lawries, issued since August 7th, 1641, to the prejudice of the Roman Catholics, their heirs, &c., should be null and void. The fifteenth article ran thus:-
“ It is further concluded, accorded, and agreed by and between the said parties, and his Majesty is graciously pleased, that an Act of Oblivion be passed in the next Parliament, to extend unto all his Majesty’s subjects of this kingdom and their adherents, of all treasons and offences,-capital, criminal, and personal,-and other offences, of what nature, kind or quality soever, as if such treason, or offences had never been committed, perpetuated, or done. That such act shall extend to all rents, goods, chattels, prized, &c., taken since the 23rd of October, 1641.”
It was also agreed that certain places of command in his Majesty’s army, and of honour and profit in the civil government of the kingdom, the conferred on his Roman Catholic subjects. In consideration of these wholesale favours, the Confederates bound themselves to raise ten thousand men to assist the King in England.
This treaty, made by Ormond at the instance of Charles, seems to be the foulest act committed in that monarch’s most unrighteous career. It was a base compromise, and for the vilest of purposes. To prolong a war with his own Parliament,- the chosen representatives of his own people, whose interest they shielded, and in defense of whose constitutional rights they stood together,-Charles negotiated with those who were longing for the opportunity to wrest Ireland from the English crown, and whose fierce hostility to their English fellow-subjects was reflected in the broad stream of English blood which flowed from one end of Ireland to the other. And yet, to hire a horde of cut-throats, and let them loose upon the Puritans of England, he covenanted with these murderers to forgive them their murders, and to allow them to retain the property of their victims.
In order to gratify his hatred against the Parliamentarians, he seemed to disregard every other consideration. Honour and duty were as nothing in the scale; his thirst for vengeance out-weighed them all. For nothing he overlooked the sufferings of the settlers; for this he was content to let their blood sink in the earth and their wrongs in oblivion. For this act alone he deserved to be discrowned. It proclaimed him a traitor, and it almost sanctified the stroke that took off his head.
It appears that rebels and thithe-owners where the only approvers of this treacherous treaty. The Supreme Council of Kilkenny were almost unanimous in its favour. The clergy of the established church, too, applauded it to the very echo, "and made a grateful remonstrance of thanks to this Excellency for his care of religion and the kingdom." Their approbation, however, is easily accounted for, by the difference between the Glamorgan treaty and the Ormond as regards tithes; for by the former the Roman Catholic party were to keep all the tithes, &c., which they at any time possessed since the breaking out of the rebellion, but by the latter they were reserved for the Protestant clergy-hence Ormond's care of religion and the kingdom.
The news of the peace was received with acclamation by the insurgents everywhere, except in Waterford, Limmerick. and Clonmel. In Waterford the heralds were so unwelcome, that no person would show them the mayor's house; and when they did succeed in finding his worship, that worthy flatly refused to make any move in the matter just then; and the mob told the heralds that if they did not be off, they would send them away packing, "with withes about their necks."
On their arrival in Limerick, the mayor of that city received them very courteously; and , having called a council, they resolved on proclaiming the peace at once. But Father Wolf, and the sheep of his pasture. resolved they should do no such thing. Accordingly, they proceeded up to the high cross; and Farther Wolf threatened the bell book, and candle-light to any one who should dare adhere to the treaty. Nevertheless, the mayor and corporation began to proclaim the peace with the usual formalities; but the mob of liberals drove them away with hideous outcries; followed them into the mayor's house; hunted them from room to room, and having wounded severely the chief magistrate and several of his adherents, the liberals concluded the business liberally, by liberally helping themselves to what they thought worth carrying away from the houses of the mayor and his friends. During all the tumult, Father Wolf was with his innocent flock: "Kill, kill, boys," he used to say to the sheep, "and I'll absolve you!"
The people of Bandon, too, were dissatisfied with the peace; and - in connection with Cork, Yougal, and Kinsale - they sent the Lords Justices a remonstrance. stating:- "That his Majesty has been misguided and seduced by sinister and corrupt means, and with a lavish expenditure of that treasure and those estates which your petitioners have been dispoiled of; by which subtle and serpentine courses the Irish quashed and depressed all opposers and accusers, and removed all impediments to their devilish end of exterminating the English." Towards the conclusion of this spirited remonstrance the petitioners take higher ground and they bodly tell my lords:- "That before they concluded a peace, they should have consulted the Parliament of England, or debated the matter with them in council." They go on to state:- "That, finding how they are in all likelihood of being over-borne y the power and potency of their adversaries, they do beseech you lordships to call to mind that his Majesty hath, by his Royal assent unto and Act of Parliament, obliged himself not to grant any pardon or terms of peace to the aforesaid rebels without the consent of the Parliament of England; and that, accordingly, your lordships should not suffer any part of his Majesty's honour to be betrayed to clemency, in assenting to such packed terms of peace as they have already contrived to draw you lordships into, without the consent of the said Parliament of England, and without admitting you petitioners to the free and full debate of the case."
We are not surprised to find that many men of influence and character should leave a cause represented by a prince who outraged every honourable feeling, and forfeited every title of respect. Indeed, we are surprised how any of the English, in this country at least, could sympathize with one who grasped in amity the red hand of the murderer of more than half their kindred, and linked himself with those who stripped them of the fruits of all the industry of their lives.
Amongst those in this county who broke off all connection with the Royal cause, were:- Sir Hardress Waller, commander of Cork city; Captain Muschamp,* commander of the Cork garrison; Thomas Bennett, governor of Baltimore Castle; Robert Salmon, of Castlehaven Castle; and Captain Robert Gookin.
* When the authorities had determined on getting the Roman Catholic inhabitants out of Cork, they resolved on effecting their purpose in as peaceable a manner as possible. It would never do to remove the greater portion of the citizens by force - in fact, it could not be done. They, therefore, had recourse to stratagem - and stratagem will often win where sheer brute force will fail. The authorities knew this, and they adopted a case, which, for novelty and success, has been seldom surpassed. Captain Muschamp strolled into the city one day about dinner-time, and, pretending to be more than half-drunk, he swaggered into the mayor's house, and invited himself to dinner. Coppinger was glad to see him. Muschamp was not the less welcome because he had come without a formal invitation and down he sat to his worship's hospitable entertainment. The sack went round, and the claret and the usquuenbagh; and cups were drained in bidding the unexpected guest a hearty welcome. After a time, they began to tak on the all absorbing evernts of the day. Every man spode out. What did any one care? That frigidity and reserve, prudence tells us to exercise in a mixed company thawed before the warm glow of the juice of the generous grape. Muschamp spoke out too. "Well, Master Mayor," said he, "if that it should please God that the Parliament in England should have the best of it in this war. and that he Parliament ships were in the harbour of Cork, if you and the rest of you would not take the covenant to be true to the King and Parliament, I protest I would,, with the great ordinance in the fort beat down all the houses in Cork about your ears." "Treason!" shouted Coppinger, as he and
The Bandon people having heard that the Lord President was about placing a large garrison in their town, sent him a remonstrance, in which, amongst other matters, they complained of the disorderly conduct of some of his troops. Inchiquin, in his reply, date October 14th, says:- “I shall endeavour to do you this favour, to place in your garrison all the old men that are best acquainted therewith, and all be most orderly and safely governed; and to that end shall send the rest of Sir Arthur Loftus's regiment unto you, with a new company raised by Lieutenant-Colonel Woodley, but of old men, whom I shall desire you to receive into the garrison, and to billet and accommodate in the same proportion with this company."
The townspeople did not confine their complaints to the garrison alone; they complain of their having to contribute towards the support of the governor, Colonel Thomas Hill. It is true that twenty pence weekly was apparently, a small amount, but it will not appear so to those who will bear in mind that this, with other imposts, were levied off a people who, to use their words, "were utterly undone from the many pressures and extortions practiced on them;" whose lands were wasted; whose trade was annihilated, and whose resources, after six years of a devastating civil war, must have been reduced to a cypher, if not exhausted altogether.
"It hath been represented unto me by Colonel Thomas Hill, governor of your corporation, "says Lord Inchiquin, in a letter to the provost, "that you have lately protested against the payment of that weekly exhibition, which you have formerly satisfied towards his support in that command. Whereby I am occasioned to put you in mind that, upon the complaint of the many pressures and extortions practiced upon you by former governors, I did, for your ease and for your instance, repose the trust of governing that corporation in this gentleman, whereby you not only seemed to be abundantly satisfied, but did also, of your own free consent, submit to the payment of twenty pence weekly toward his subsistence. "He concludes his letter by telling then "that they may get worse; and that, in case they not resolve to stand in the own light, I must then let you know that I stand engaged to interpose so far as that, during his continuance amongst you, the rent of any house he shall think convenient to live in must be free unto him, and the charge thereupon borne by the corporation."
The government were sorely pressed for funds from the commencement of rebellion; and, although there were many matters of vital importance to engage the attention, there were none of such moment at that of procuring means for the maintenance of the army. As they could levy no money off the country, they resolved to establish a mint of their own, and coin it. To do this, the Lords Justices and council met and issued the following order:-
"That we find it of absolute necessity, for the relief of the officers of the army, that in the case of extremity wherein we now stand, all manner of persons, of what condition or quality soever, dwelling in the city suburbs of Dublin, as well within the liberties as without, within ten days next after publication of the said order, to deliver, or cause to be delivered, half or more of his, her, or their plate to William Bladen, of Dublin, Alderman, and John Pue, one of the sheriffs of the same city, taking their hand for receipt thereof, to the end use may be made thereof or the present relief of the said officers."
To this an assurance was added that payment should be made at the rate of five shillings for such silver plate "as is of true touch;" and interest at the rate of eight per cent. per annum until the debt was discharged.
Permission to establish a mint was subsequently extended to other towns, and from those mints issued siege pieces," or money of necessity. There was one established this year in Bandon, under the direction of Lord Broghill. The Bandon coins, all of which were of copper, were about the size of a farthing, and about half as thick; containing, on the obverse, the Bandon bridge, within a linear circle, outside of which was a beaded circle, but without the three castles which are generally represented in the Bandon arms; and between the circles just mentioned, "THE CORPORATION." On the reverse, enclosed by a linear circle similar in size and form to the other,-three castles; and between the circle and the beaded one outside, "THE BANDON ARMS," with the date, 1646. There was another of an irregular octagonal form, having on one side the letters "B.B.," within a circle of small lozenges; on the other side, three castles within a similar circle; weight, thirty-one grains. The letters B.B. signify Bandon-Bridge; and the same letters, indented, occur as a counter-mark on some of the tokens issued in Bandon in 1670.
On the 16th of December a report of the state of Ireland was made to the Parliament, from which it appeared that there were four thousand foot and three hundred horse in the garrisons of Cork, Bandon, and Youghal.
1647- The Irish Parliament, which had been prematurely brought to a close; by the outburst of the great rebellion, resumed its sittings on the 26th of March, and on the 30th proceeded to business. The first act of the house was to appoint a committee to draught a letter to be sent to the committee of the Derby House, in London, on behalf of Captain Thomas Plunkett; and the first act of the committee was to appoint one of the members for Bandon-our old friend, Anthony Dopping- to prepare it. Mr. Dopping, nothing loath, applied himself to the task with his usual industry, and with such dispatch that it was brought up the same day, before the rising of the house. From the report, which was rather a lengthy one, we gather that Captain Plunkett gave one thousand pounds for the protection of the city of Dublin and the relief of several garrisons, and that the committee were so pleased with his patriotism, that they recommended that the thanks of both houses be given to him. Some few days after, Mr. Dopping presented a petition to the house, stating:-" That upon the 6th instant, Sir Erasmus Burrowes and Sir William Gilbert were spoken to at a committee of both houses, to view the guard in the Castle; that they repairing the guard, found only six men upon guard and one sentinel at each gate; that they asked of a corporal of Captain Peisley, who had command of the guard, who showed him the said eight men, and told them that there were two upon the Castle; that immediately Captain Peisley coming in, they, in a civil manner, demanded of him where his officer was, who told them he went out to recreate himself, and would come bye and bye; that Sir Erasmus told him the guard was very slender, and some of his soldiers Papists, and were ill-effected, and were gone to the enemy; that Peisley, in a very high manner said, they lie that say so; and that there is a great stir with a company of flickards and babblers, without cause."
After reading the report, the Rev. Mr. Birch, chaplain to the Lord Lieutenant, was called in to know his answer concerning the matter, and some words in the petition. Mr. Birch, however, stood on his privilege as chaplain to his Excellency, and refused to give the house any information; whereupon a committee was appointed to wait on the Lord Lieutenant, and carry with them Mr. Dopping's petition.
Mr. Dopping was a member of several other committees also: as, "To consider the advisability of not billeting soldiers on members of Parliament;" "To congratulate the commissioners that had been sent over by the Parliament, and to acknowledge in the name of both houses their hearty thankfulness for their zeal and care in sending supplies for the relief and preservation of this kingdom;" and "To peruse the Articles exhibited against William Chappell, bishop of Cork and Ross, late provost of the college of Dublin, and his answer thereunto," &c.
Notwithstanding all the care and diligence displayed by our junior representative in the discharge of his duties, yet, we find that Master Anthony was caught napping at last; for on a roll-call of the house, on the 21st May, he and thirty-three others were fined one shilling each for being absent.
Although, as we have said, are junior representative was most assiduous in the performance of his duties towards his country and his constituents, yet, like many of our parliamentary representatives in our own day, he did not think the interest of that very important digit-"number one" -beneath the consideration of and Irish M.P. Accordingly, we find him looking about him; and with such success, that he was enabled to induce the house to pass a bill, entitled "An Act for securing three messauages or houses,* with three gardens and one orchard, with the appurtenances, situate in St. Bride's Street, and the city of Dublin, unto Anthony Dopping, gentleman, for threescore years."
Of our senior member, Sir Francis Slingsby, we have been unable to discover any trace.
On the 18th of June the house adjourned. Letters of protection were conferred by Lord Inchiquin upon those of the Irish party who contributed to the support of his army; and copies were sent to the governors, mayors, provosts, &c., of the different districts, cities, and towns under his authority. One of these, granted to Walter White of Kinnallea, we subjoin:
'By the Lord President of Munster.
''Whereas, I have protected Walter White, gent., upon his lands in the barony of Kinnellea, he contributing to the Protestant party. These are, therefore, to will and strictly require all commanders, officers, and soldiers, be they horse or foot, and all others whom it may concern, to forbear arresting, suing, or impleading the said Walter White in any court or courts, for any manner of debts, claim, or demand whatsoever, due by bill, book, or other ways. Whereof they may not fail at their ensuing peril. Dated the eleventh day of March, 1647.
* We presume these were some of the houses taken from Roman Catholics found residing in the city.
Notwithstanding the local mints, and the assistance procured by letters of protection, the Lord President was still at his wit's end for money and means. In a letter to Mr. Robert Bathurst, the provost of Bandon, dated Cork, January 24th, he states:-''I have already borrowed of the officers of Colonel Blunt's and Sir Arthur Loftus's regiments money to pay their men for the week ending this day, which is all they are able to send me; and now, their being no other way left to maintain them this ensuing week, I am enforced to desire the assistance of the inhabitants of that town, as I have done the like of this [Cork] and Kinsale, who have very willingly and largely contributed unto the relief of those garrisons in their extremely; and shall, therefore, desire that you will cause so much money to be raised in that town as the most equal and indifferent now. That you can as well pay those two regiments for this week:-Colonel Blunt's men two shillings a piece, and ten pounds amongst Sir Arthur Loftus's regiment; and accordingly pay it unto them, and before the end of the week I shall take those men from you. My only endeavour, in the meantime, being to get enough of oaten meal made in a readiness for carriage into the field, and then to draw them abroad, being unwilling to continue any burthen upon you any longer than unavoidable necessity doth counsel me; and herein expecting you will not fail,'' &c., &c.
The town granted the money, and receipts were passed to the provost for the amounts. We give the following:-
'' Received of the provost of Bandon, forty shillings, for the use of the lieutenants, ensigns, and staff officers, this 24th of August, 1647.
'' Received of the provost of Bandon, fifty shillings for the use of lieutenants, ensigns, and staff officers, this third day of _____, 1647.
The new provost Mr. Abraham Savage, felt the burthen of supporting the garrison as acutely as his predecessor, Mr. Bathurst; and, in a letter to Governor Searle,* requests that he would have the sick and wounded men removed from the town into a hospital; and that he would have one of the regiments, at least, removed from the town.
In reply, the governor said:-''I think the sick and shot men were better to be continued in their quarters than to be removed into an hospital. As for getting a regiment removed, I shall endeavour it, but I fear I shall lose my labour; but I assure yourself I will do the utmost I can to comply with your expectation.'' He then informed our chief magistrate ''that the day of public thanksgiving is put off by the general consent until Thursday next, and I desire you to acquaint the magistrates with the same, and all the corporation.'' He concludes ''by praying that the corporation will have the thirty pounds ready for Monday be-times.'' The letter is dated December 3rd, 1647, and signed,
''Yours to do service,
* In an account of the particular savings contained in the patents under the Acts of Settlement and Explanation, we find the sum of £4,826 6s. 10d. assigned in trust to Sir Randal Clayton, for Mrs. Jane Searle, being the amount of arrears due to Colonel Thomas Searle, deceased..
Notwithstanding that the townspeople were desirous of being rid of ''the sick and shot'' soldiers, and were also convinced that they had a regiment too much billeted upon them, they were ordered to prepare quarters and credit for two more.
''By virtue of an order from the Lord President of Munster, I do hereby desire the provost and inhabitants of Bandon-Bridge to procure credit for the officers of the regiment under the command of Colonel Blunt, and the officers of the regiment under the command of Colonel Knight, for which the Lord President doth engage himself to make payment out of the first money that shall arrive. The number of officers to be quartered are hereunder written, this 21st day of December, 1647, for which I do hereby undertake that satisfaction shall be made according to my Lord's letters, only for their diet.
|Colonel Blunt's Officer||Colonel Knight's Officers.†|
|Captain Kirle||Captain Richards|
|Lieutenant Alexander||Lieutenant Brady|
|Lieutenant Blunt||Lieutenant Lone|
|Lieutenant Morse (absent)||Lieutenant Erwin|
|Lieutenant Austin||Lieutenant Plumer|
|Lieutenant Browne||Lieutenant Cavanagh|
|Lieutenant Harrisey||Lieutenant Tucker|
|Ensign Chambers||Ensign Elliard|
|Ensign Woods (absent)||Ensign Mason|
|Ensign Somersett||Ensign Peach|
|Ensign Symons||Ensign Cossior|
|Ensign Mallory||Ensign Garner|
|Ensign Morrill||Ensign Loftus|
|Ensign Hawkins||Ensign Hamilton|
|Ensign Giles (absent)||Ensign Holland|
|Ensign Halfaicker||Benjamin Cox, Marshall|
|Ensign Pottye||John Comyn, Wagon-master|
|Henry Causen, Marshall||-----, junr., Marshall|
|James Wood, Waggon-master|
|John Bignall, Chirurgeon|
|Charles Eksynge, junr., Marshall|
1649- On the 23rd of February the Nuncio set sail from Galway, and returned to Rome. The General Assembly at Kilkenny were so displeased with his conduct, but they directed their speaker to write him a letter, ordering him to quit the kingdom; and enclosing him, at the same time, a schedule of the grievances which he caused. They threatened, in addition, to impeach him before the Pope; and they concluded, by warning every one not to communicate or correspond with him. Upon his arrival in the holy city he had an interview with his master. "Temerarie te gessisti," said his Holiness. This rebuke is said to have grated so severely upon the sensitive feelings of the poor Legate, that it killed him.
Now, that the prince of Firmo had turned his back upon our shores, the Irish fought vigorously on the Royalist side; and there are not wanting writers who could fain persuade us that they were warmly attached to the first Charles. But we very much question the warmth of that attachment, as well as its sincerity; particularly when we note that it was in this very prince's reign they got up this -the greatest rebellion of all; and in whose reign, also, it was that their Supreme Council at Kilkenny gave written instructions to Sir Nicholas Plunket to offer his kingdom of Ireland-first to the Pope, and, if refused by him, then to the every other Roman Catholic potentate in Europe, including even the Duke of Lorraine . And yet we find some writers term them ''Royalists;'' and, indeed, as such they had the boldness to petition Charles the Second for the restoration of their estates!
Royalists, forsooth! What pretty Royalists were Owen Roe O'Neill, Rinuccini, Father Wolf, Sir Phelim O'Neil, and other worthies who took a prominent part in the great events of the day!
"The English colonists," say the writers referred to, "were rebels." Was it the English colonists sent emissaries all over Papal Europe, and organize the most gigantic conspiracy that ever threatened English rule in this country? Was it at their instigation that hosts of priests and friars flocked into the country from abroad? Was it by their desire that the Irish rebelled against the supremacy of England, on the 23rd of October, and in a short time cause the death of over one hundred thousand of their kith and kin?
That the colonists did fight against Charles-is true; but not until he had justly forfeited every prerogative of the king; until he had sided energetically with those who had wrested from them all the fruit of their toil of their lives, and then sanctioned the robbery; and who had, with a fury almost Satanic, swept numbers of their inoffensive women and children into an early grave!
When he stood up in their gory ranks, arrayed against those who Queen Elizabeth and his own father had induced to settle upon the devastated lands of Desmond and Tyrone, they strove resolutely against him; and fought as fiercely against the traitorous King, as they did if against those who boasted of such leaders as Father Wolf and Sir Phelim O'Neil.
No! On the contrary, the Irish hated both English and their King; and in is this they were consistent, for every generation that preceded them-from the time the English came here down to their own time-did the same. That they formed an alliance with Charles-no one will deny; but it was not for the purpose of benefiting him, but of dragging from him terms which they well knew his English subjects would never concede to them.
There were also influenced by another motive-that of crushing the Puritans. On this subject the royalist and the rebels were united; they were both sincere in their professions of enmity to them; and a it would be difficult to say-now-which of the two burned with the most intense hate towards them. They both foresaw that, if the Puritans won, the "divine right " nonsense of the one had as little chance of attaining to favour and success, as a cruel misdeeds of the other had of escaping a severe-but well-merited-punishment.
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